Empirical Evidence from the Bootstrap Rolling Window Approach on the Nexus between Agriculture Performance and the Environmental Kuznets Curve in China
The bootstrap Granger causality test and rolling window sub-sample are the two methods that are utilized in this study to investigate the connection that exists between agricultural output and CO2 emissions in China from the years 1990 through 2022. Because it considers basic shifts in the economy over the course of time, the rolling window method offers a more sophisticated analysis. As a result, this study is the first one to partition the sample periods into subsets and generate parameters from within each of those subsets. The findings of the study show that the parameter for agricultural expansion has a propensity toward snowballing during the first subset of data, which covers the years 1990 to 2004. However, a downward tendency can be seen in the parameter in the second subgroup, which covers the years 2004 through 2022. These findings add more support to the idea that China possesses an EKC in the shape of an inverted U.